Also called: Scholarly Journals, Academic Journals, Peer-Reviewed
Use the following criteria to determine whether an article is scholarly.
|Audience||Scholars, researchers, professors, students.|
|Author||Professionals, experts in the field. Credentials are listed in the article.|
|Length||Usually lengthy, often 20-40 pages long.|
|Citations||Many detailed citations.|
|Refereed||Yes; Articles go through a peer-review process where they are critiqued by other experts in the field before they are published.|
Here are some ways to identify primary research in the sciences:
The credentials of the researchers, the title; is it a review or meta-study?
Primary research will ask a question, state a hypothesis or goal.
The experimental design must be described such that it could be replicated.
What were the results of the study/experiment.
What conclusions can be made from the results, what are the implications, areas for further study?
Do the researchers cite the work of others?
All screenshots from:
Arnedt, J., Rohsenow, D., Almeida, A., Hunt, S., Gokhale, M., Gottlieb, D. & Howland, J. (2011).
Sleep following alcohol intoxication in healthy, young adults: Effects of sex and family
history of alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 35(5), 870-8.