Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Chicago/Turabian: Footnotes

Help with citing using Chicago or Turabian guidelines.

Need more?

Additional examples and explanations for using notes are found on pages 151-57 in A Manual for Writers (2007).

Formatting Footnotes

Some general rules for formatting footnotes:

  • Begin your footnote on the page on which you reference it.
  • Footnotes should be indented as you would indent a paragraph.
  • If a footnote must run over onto a new page, break it in midsentence so that readers do not think they have read the entire note.
  • Do not use more than one reference number at the same location (ie, 5, 6). Instead, use one number and place all citations in a single note, separated by semicolons.

Short Form Citations & Ibid.

The first time you cite a source, you will need to include the full citation information. Each subsequent time you cite it in the same paper, however, you will use a short form citation.

Author Only

If you are citing only one work by a particular author, use only their name and the page number.

     4. Michael Davis, Street Gang: The Complete History of Sesame Street (New York: Viking, 2008), 43.

     5. Davis, 102.

Author-Title

If you are citing multiple works by the same author, use the author's name, a shortened (but clear!) version of the title, and the page number.

     12. Davis, Street Gang, 197.

Title Only

If you are citing a work which does not have an author or editor, use a shortened (but clear!) version of the title and the page number.

     18. Driving Home, 280.

Ibid

Ibid is no longer used in Turabian citations as of the 8th edition. Use the short form instead.