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MLA 9th Edition Subject Guide

Basic Guidelines for Citations in MLA



The 9th edition of MLA teaches you to visualize the construction of all citations in terms of multi-level "containers."

Refer back to the tutorial linked on Parts of a Citation if you need a refresher, and/or if the media you are citing does NOT correspond with an example given below.

Transcript of an Audio or Audiovisual Medium

Allende, Isabel. "Tales of Passion." TED, 2007, Transcript.

Episode in a Television Series

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, season 4, episode 10,

    Mutant Enemy, 1999.​


Specific Performance of a Piece of Music

Schubert, France.  Piano Trio in E-flat Major D929. 

    Performance by Wiener Mozart-Trio, unabridge version, Preiser Records, 2011.​


In-text citations

Inside your paper, give credit to the works you quote.

See examples of how to tell your readers where facts, paraphrases, or quotes in your paper come from at this site from the Purdue OWL: MLA 2021 In-text Citations.

Need more?

Additional examples and explanations for a variety of media genres and their respective citations are found in the MLA Handbook (2021), or visit the websites listed on the MLA home page.